The endocrine system cannot function properly if the hormones secretions are too less or too much. The imperfect amounts of secretions occur when the endocrine glands malfunction. When the growth hormone secretion does not occur or is too less in children, it can result in a very slow growth rate and can even result in dwarfism. The child will have a chubby structure and a childish face.
When there is insufficient production of cortisol by the adrenal glands, it gives way to Addison's disease or Hypocortisolism. The affected person might experience exhaustion, loss of appetite and thereby, weight loss. When cortisol is produced in abundance, it causes Cushing's syndrome or Hypercortisolism. The affected person will put on a lot of weight, have weak muscles and bones and will be very exhausted.
Congenital deformities of the pituitary or hypothalamus will cause hypopituitarism. Sometimes, middle aged people suffer from an excessive secretion of growth hormone. Symptoms will be enlargement of hands and feet. It might damage the heart, and even enlarge the kidneys, liver and spleen. This endocrine disorder goes under the name of Acromegaly.
When the thyroid gland gets affected by the immune system, it could result in chronic thyroiditis known as Hashimoto's disease. In women, it might affect the menstrual cycle. Other symptoms are hair loss, dry skin, weight gain and less tolerance to cold.
When there is very less secretion of parathyroid hormone, it will affect the levels of calcium. Insufficient calcium in the body will cause the muscles to cramp, and you might get a tingly feeling in the hands. This disorder is called Hypoparathyroidism. When the level of calcium gets too high, the parathyroid hormone causes Hypercalcemia. The affected person might get kidney stones, and experience nausea, pain and hypertension.
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