Understanding what goes wrong after a surgery would require understanding the immune system. As such, before going into details of immune system problem after surgery, let us first understand the immune system.
The immune system guards the body from disease organisms and other foreign bodies, known as antigens. The first streak of defense is local barriers such as the skin, and peritoneum, and inflammation owing to immunoglobulins, or antibodies. If those fall short of blocking or destroying the antigens, the cell-mediated immune reaction and the humoral immune response kick in.
Normally though, immune system problems arise from non-compliance of the rules to be observed prior to and after surgical operations. Such rules include:
- Administration of antibiotics prior to and after to surgery. Antibiotics generally are given within one hour of the commencement of surgery (typically, once in the operating room) and sustained for a short period following the surgery.
- Short operating time and minimal or traffic. Efficiency in the surgery by the surgeon facilitates the lowering of the threat of infection by restraining the time the surgery wound is exposed. Restricting the number of operating room personnel entering and leaving the room is considered to minimize risk of infection.
- Application of austere sterile technique and refined sterilization techniques. Heed should be given to ensure the operating site is disinfected, the instruments have been autoclaved and not open to the elements and to any contamination, and the paraphernalia are packaged to make certain their sterility.
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