The central nervous system, or the CNS, is regarded as a vital system in the human body for normal functioning. While CNS mainly comprises nerves along with the vital organs like spinal cord and the heart; the PNS comprises nerves throughout the body. The main function of the CNS is to co-ordinate activities of different parts of the body. The working of CNS and PNS in tandem is defined as behavior in multi-cellular organisms.
The sensory nerve endings located almost all over the body gives the input signals through the network of nerves in PNS to the CNS terminating in the brain. The sensation of pain is transmitted in signal form to the spinal cord and then to the brain. The signal is processed in the brain and the appropriate response signal is transmitted from the control center of the brain to the CNS. The efferent nerves and the nerves network of the PNS then carry these response signals to the targeted body part for a flight or fight response.
The spinal cord and brain are vital organs which define the physical and mental aspects of humans. The brain is regarded as a control center where different functions of the body controlled like, sensation, memory, movement, speech, thought and so on. The brain is divided in to zones called left brain and right brain. The left side controls activities like sequential analysis, storing things in memory in a certain order, logical interpretations and so on. The right side of the brain controls activities like spatial and visual skill abilities and storing in memory in either visual or auditory modalities. The brain is also divided in to lobes based on specific functions which are controlled. Frontal lobe controls memory and cognitive skills, and parietal lobe controls the processing work of input signals received.
The spinal cord is the bone structure found in vertebrates which differentiates us humans from invertebrates. This is the back-bone which assists in holding posture .The base of the brain called brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord.
Most of the responses to the inputs are transmitted through the nervous system from and to the brain and the nerves of the PNS. Some reflexive responses are controlled by the pathways of the spinal cord which does not get controlled by the brain. Damage to the spine or head can hamper functioning of the nervous system and affect body functioning as well. Although the skull protects the brain and spinal column protects the spine, they are not safe from injuries.
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Buzzle.com: Central Nervous System Function