In the human body, most organs and systems regulate or control only a single function except the central nervous system (CNS) which performs several tasks at a given time. Both voluntary actions like walking, talking or touching and involuntary actions like breathing or blinking are controls by this system. The CNS also has a major role to play as to how we perceive things, our emotions and our thoughts. This vital system in our body is naturally sheltered by a protective bone around it.
There are many different layers of protective covers around the central nervous system. The human brain is found with a skull bone while series or sequences of vertebrae surround the spinal cord. Within these bony structures are found various tissue layers called meninges that play the role of protective lining by covering both the spinal cord and the brain with extra sheets of protection.
Inside these layers is the sub-arachnoid space, a channel within which the cerebrospinal fluid flows. The cerebrospinal fluid gets recycled on a regular basis through ventricles. Ventricles are the spaces or meninges found inside the brain. The cerebrospinal fluid also helps in reducing the net mass of the brain at the base of the skull to a large extent as the brain apparently floats in this fluid. It also acts as a protection against direct blows or injury caused to the head.
Blood vessels that carry and supply blood to the brain are relatively impermeable and are a closed system so many substances in the blood do not get through into the brain. Unlike the capillaries that carryblood to the other body parts, the capillaries present in the brain lack pores or openings that let other substances through. This phenomenon called the blood-brain barrier ensures that no harmful substance is allowed to enter the brain.
Most tissues or organs in the human body regenerate or recover eventually once injured without much difficulty or intervention. However, cells in the CNS are extremely specialized and complexities within these cells make it almost impossible to form the exact right connections amongst all cells of the brain and the spinal cord and so they are unable to divide or produce similar new cells after an injury. This makes recovering from any damage caused to the brain or the spinal cord much more complicated and difficult, and throws a challenge upon researchers to recreate or recover the CNS after an injury.
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Missouri University of Science and Technology: Structure of the Nervous System