Neurons are regarded as building blocks of the nervous system in our body. There are more than a billion in our brain. These are essential for transmission of electrical signals received by the sensory cells to the central nervous system, and transmission of the response from the brain to the targeted part of the body for responding to the surrounding environment.
These are similar to the other body cells but have a specialized function of information transfer. Each neuron comprises dendrites, cell body and axon. The dendrites receive the signal and transfer the same to the adjacent neuron while the body houses a nucleus which controls most of its activities. The axons house the neurotransmitters which attach and bridge the synoptic gap for signal transfer. They are coated with an insulating-type of layer known as myelin, which enhances the speed of signal transmission in the brain.
Brain is the control center for activities like vision, thinking, memory, consciousness, learning and so on. On receiving electro-chemical impulses, the brain controls voluntary or conscious behavior. Involuntary activities or activities of many internal organs are monitored by the brain using the feedback circuitry.
The connections and associated patterns of neurons in the brain start developing in the fatal stages. Networking this complicated system is encoded in the genes of the fetus. The studies on the growing embryos in many animals has proven that the neurons are created in the brain or transported to the earmarked location in the brain .once they are fixed in the set location, their axons are sent out along designated paths in order to make contact with the earmarked target.
All our mental and physical activities depend on this network. An individual’s skills and habits are related to the respective neurons being activated frequently like in the case of nail biting habit or ability to play any instrument. Under utilization or stoppage in utilizing neurons related to certain activities will eventually make them disappear.
Each faculty in the brain is controlled by a group of neurons. Information is received, processed and response transmitted for our normal survival and healthy life. The processes of communication, repair and metabolism are controlled simultaneously to meet this end.
Neurons require constant supply or oxygen and glucose in order to survive and maintain normal body metabolism. They live long and maintain themselves when in use and repaired as required. Damage can be caused by injury or disease and these neurons can not be replaced.
More Articles :
- Function Of Motor Neurons
- How Do Neurons Convey Information ?
- How Many Neurons Are In Brain ?
- The Difference Between Neurons And Neurotransmitters
HyperTextBook: Number of Neurons In A Human Brain