Key to performing CPR is the "ABC" principle. In ABC, A stands for Airway, B for Breathing and C for Circulation. This involves, clearing the airway, mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and chest compression for artificial circulation. Let us now discuss the steps in detail.Steps to Performing CPR:
Step 1: Try to awaken the person. If the person is unresponsive, immediately call 911 and get back to the victim.
Step 2: Open the Airway. To do this, gently lift the chin with one hand. This will tilt the head back, allowing a path for air to travel to the lungs from the mouth and nose.
Step 3: Check for breathing. You can either look for the chest for movement or listen to the breathing sound or else feel the warm air of their breath on your cheek. If there is a sign of breathing CPR may not be required. However, if there is no sign of breathing, then rescue breathing needs to be provided.
Step 4: Provide rescue breathing. The best way to do this is by mouth to mouth technique. The head is properly positioned by tilting the head back by lifting the chin. The nostrils are then pinched and the person is given two quick breaths. However, for each breath the movement of the chest is checked. Movement suggests that the airway is clear and air is reaching the lungs. If not, Repeat Step 2 (clearing the airway) and provide rescue breathing again.
Step 5: Check for pulse and breathing. If pulse is felt, but no breathing then rescue breathing needs to be continued until the victim begins to breath. However, if there is no pulse and no breathing then artificial circulation needs tobe provided.
Step 6: Provide artificial circulation through chest compressions. This restores blood circulation of the person. To do this, kneel beside the person and place the heel of your hand in the middle of the chest (between the nipples). Place the other hand on the top of the hand placed on the chest. If the victim is an adult, gently compress the chest of the victim to about 2 inches. Then remove the pressure without removing your hands from the victim's chest. Chest compressions should be given at the rate of about 2 per second. If rescue breathing and chest compressions are given simultaneously, then ideally, about 15 chest compressions should be given after two breaths.
Step 7: The above process of two breaths and 15 chest compressions should be repeated until the victim begins to breath or until emergency medical help arrives on the spot.
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