The body keeps a particular amount of sodium within itself. The factors causing low levels of sodium in the blood can be dietary or due to some medication or owing to the presence of some serious disease. The condition in which the body has low levels of sodium is called as hyponatremia, which can lead to serious problems in health. The level of sodium in the body goes down because of over-intake of water, which results in the dilution of the sodium present in the blood.
Sodium plays a helpful role in maintaining the balance of the electrolytes within the body, it helps in the proper functioning of the muscles and nerves and helps maintaining the blood pressure. Though restrictions in a diet can result in poor sodium levels in the body, the chances of suffering from hyponatremia grow only if the diet is extremely imbalanced with low salt intake and following it for a long time.
The diseases affecting the water regulation, also affect the sodium in the body, and can result in low level of sodium. The diseases of the kidney are an example that can result in hyponatremia. Adrenal glands help in the secretion of a hormone known as aldosterone, which is known to affect the functioning of the kidney. Addison’s disease causes damage to the adrenal glands resulting in low aldosterone levels, eventually lowering down the level of sodium in the body.Another hormone called as the vasopressin also has a role to play in regulating sodium. Vasopressin, regulated by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, makes kidney its target and lets the water conserve within the body, which dilutes the sodium levels. The diseases that lead to the increased production of vasopressin also result in hyponatremia.
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