Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the diseased cartilage and bone of the hip joint is removed and replaced with artificial materials. The hip joint is a ball and socket joint with cup-shaped bone of the pelvis being the socket and the head of the thigh bone as the ball.
Hip joint replacement involves the removal of the diseased ball and socket and replacing them with a metal ball and stem inserted into the femur bone and an artificial plastic cup socket. The metallic artificial ball and stem are called as prosthesis.
Total hip joint replacement can involve blood loss. Patients, who are planning to undergo hip transplant surgery, donate their own (autologous) blood in advance which is stored and kept ready to be used during their hip transplant surgery in case blood transfusion is required. This is to minimize risks of blood transfusion. It has been observed that patients who donate their own blood one week prior to surgery tend to develop less number of clots in their legs and less chances of developing pulmonary embolus. This is mainly due to blood becoming less viscous due to blood donation.
Preoperative autologous donation (PAD) of blood by hip transplant patients has been a standard practice for more than two decades. It has been observed that it is a very expensive procedure considering the cost of inventory and wastage. There are a number of alternative strategies available. Hence, the need for using PAD for every patient may not be appropriate. At the 1999 annual meeting of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, Wixson and colleagues presented a paper to answer some of these questions. They have concluded based on a study conducted that routine PAD in non anemic patients is not justified.
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