The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of gender, color, race, religion, nationality, height, weight, marital status, family status, disability and arrest history. It also restricts companies from advertising hiring requirements on the basis of these qualities.
The EEOC has the responsibility to ensure that hiring companies do not post job vacancies that discriminate. For instance, advertising for an attractive young female for stewardess position is a violation against the Title VII. The ADEA restricts discrimination based on age and sex. If an employer is found disobeying these guidelines, he may be examined by the Labor Department and associated state and local agencies.
Let us consider one more example which violates the ADEA norms. Suppose the employment posting clearly states that seniors can add on their retirement earnings, then it is a violation of the law. This is because the posting is clearly targeting a particular age group and this is an act of discrimination against other age groups.
These employment laws are applicable also for all kinds of labor organizations, employment agencies and labor-management committees.
Where age, gender or religion is required as a "bona fide occupational qualification", or BFOQ, then it can be clearly mentioned in the job posting. One example of such BFOQ is advertising for female nurses for a nursing home to look after female residents. Or, a religious institution can advertise for a person belonging to the same faith to help in day-to-day religious activities. All such job notices and advertisements although seem to discriminate, they are actually mandatory requirements for a specific type of job. Hence, cannot be questioned by the ADEA.
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