Complications Of Premature Birth
The baby that is born before thirty seven weeks of gestation of pregnancy is considered as premature birth. This is considered to be a major complication of pregnancy as the babies born before the term period usually undergo a series of medical complication. The babies born through premature birth are called as preemies. The neonatal intensive care unit is often used to treat such babies with complication.
The development of lungs happens only after thirty-six weeks of gestation. So, any premature birth leads an improper development of lungs that leads to Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) results in irregular breathing. This syndrome is mainly caused by the lack of surfactant and it could be treated by sing ventilators, endotracheal intubation, etc.
Tachypnea is another problem that the preemies face as a result of immature lungs which is characterized by shallow breathing. Some preemies cannot withstand the pressure given in the ventilators for more than twenty eight days and results in Broncho pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD).
Another complication is the Pneumonia that causes inflammation thereby reducing the exchange of air in the lungs resulting in less supply of oxygen to the body. Preemies also face the problem of complete absence of breathing and reduced heart beat called apnea and bradycardia respectively. The preemies can be tapped gently to rectify these problems. The infection after the preterm birth is the major problem as the preemies do not develop strong immune response against the infection.
The pigment called bilirubin gets accumulated in the blood that gives the skin a yellow color and results in Jaundice. Phototherapy is usually given as treatment for jaundice. The preemies that are born before 34 weeks may not withstand the changes during the labor leading to intra ventricular hemorrahage, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, etc. The premature baby also suffers to maintain the temperature of the body.
As the gastrointestinal and the digestive systems are not well developed, it is difficult for the preemies to absorb the nutrients effectively. It is also studied that the premature babies are prone for anemia as they posses a low level of red blood cells.
The premature babies also suffer from cardiac and eye disorder called patent ductus arteriosus and retinopathy of prematurity respectively. They also encounter with infection in the bowel wall leading to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The bacteria in the blood called sepsis are another complication that the preemies encounter.
It is always safe to follow the instruction given by the doctors to avoid premature birth.
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