Pathophysiology Of Insulin In Diabetes

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Pathophysiology Of Insulin In Diabetes

On the onset of a disease or injury, the body undergoes many functional changes. And, understanding these functional changes due to disease or injury is called pathophysiology. In the case of diabetes, insulin production is negatively impacted resulting in the impairment of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats or lipids, and proteins.

Usually, when carbohydrates are taken, the body breaks it down into glucose, and sends it to the bloodstreams. Thus, triggering the rise in blood glucose level. To control this increase in blood glucose levels, the pancreas releases insulin. In the body of a person suffering from hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia or insulin resistance (IR), the production and release of insulin gets affected, and in the process the glucose is not passed through cell walls into the cells. This results in the stoppage of energy flow in the body.

In the case of hypoglycemia, there will be too much production of insulin. This could lead to quick and uneven distribution of glucose to cells. That is, when the insulin is more than the glucose levels, the energy is sent to only some cells in the body too quickly leaving the other cells high and dry. Eventually, this could result in low blood glucose levels.

Hyperglycemia works exactly the opposite way. There will not be sufficient production of insulin by the pancreas resulting in increased blood glucose levels. Low insulin levels will not be able to push the glucose into the cells, and this would lead to low energy levels.

In people with insulin resistance (IR), the insulin production will be normal. However, the cells tend to behave in a different way. Hence, increased blood glucose level is the most common diabetes pathophysiology for insulin resistance.

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Pathophysiology Of Insulin In Diabetes