Elements And Principles Of Interior Design  

Irrespective of the kind of design you have chosen for your home or office décor, there are certain basic principles and elements of interior design that you should follow to achieve the best results. The main elements of interior design are the raw materials, such as paints and fabrics, tools, space, lines, forms, textures, colors, and patterns. The basic underlying principles determine the right use of these elements and must be, therefore, followed carefully.

The five main principles of interior design include harmony and unity, proportion and scale, balance, rhythm, and proportion. Following is a brief description of these principles:

Harmony and Unity: While the principle of unity ensures a sense of orderliness in the décor, harmony assures that all the elements blend well with each other. However, overusing the concept can lead to a monotony and must be avoided.

Proportion and Scale: This principle determines the kind of size relationships that would best suit the theme of the room. While the concept of proportion determines the relationship of the elements of an object to the object as a whole, the principle of scale determines the size of an object in accordance with the size of the area in which it is placed.

Balance: This is the most important of all principles of interior design and refers to the visual equilibrium in the design of any room. It imparts a sense of relaxation and security. It refers to the right placement or an even distribution of different elements within the room. To add more warmth and comfort to the room, going by the principle of informal balance is the best choice. In this concept, varied items of identical visual weight are used to create equilibrium in the room décor. Formal balance, which imparts a mirror image effect, uses objects of similar symmetry to create the visual equilibrium.

Rhythm: A good rhythm fosters the unified look of the room and is brought about by repetitive use of elements like line, form, color, and texture. In some designs, it is developed by means of progression, that is, by gradually increasing or decreasing the size, direction, or color.

Emphasis: Emphasis refers to the design of the center of attraction of the room. It can be the bed, a fireplace, a magnificent piece of artwork, or a beautiful outside view. Right emphasis can be added to the focal point by judiciously using the elements of line, form, color and texture.

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